Which or that?
Некоторые особенности употребления относительных местоимений в английских придаточных определительных предложениях

Relative clause Function of relative pronoun in subordinate clause Antecedent
personal non-personal
A restrictive (synonyms: identifying, defining, essential) clause is used to narrow, limit the reference of the antecedent; to specify a subclass within a broader class of beings or things. It is essential to the meaning of the sentence and cannot be left out. No commas are used to mark off a restrictive clause from the rest of the sentence. subject
who1, that
There is the driver who/that overtook us five minutes ago.
Anyone who wants to leave early may do so.
which, that2
I'm looking for a book which/that is easy to read.
All that was dear to me is here.
The only thing that matters is to solve the problem.
(whom) [formal]
(who)3 [informal]
Where is the man (who(m)/that) I saw this morning?
He was the tallest boy (who(m)/that) I had ever seen.
Where is the book (which/that) I bought this morning?
Everything (that) you see here can be divided between you.
None of the cars (that) I saw had been damaged.
object of preposition
to whom4 [formal]
(who) ... to [informal]
(that) ... to
This is the man about whom I have told you.
This is the man (who/that) I have told you about.
to which [formal]
(which) ... to
(that) ... to
The picture at which I am looking was painted by my friend.
The noun or pronoun in the main clause (which/that) a relative pronoun is related to is called its antecedent.
possessive relative word
This is the boy whose father is an astronaut.
of which [formal]
He mentioned a book whose title I can't remember now.
He mentioned a book the title of which I can't remember now.
He mentioned a book of which the title I can't remember now.
A non-restrictive (synonyms: non-identifying, non-defining, non-essential, amplifying) clause gives additional, explanatory information about the object (antecedent) that has been previously specified in the main clause or by context. It can be omitted without changing the essential meaning of the sentence. A non-restrictive clause is set off by commas (sometimes by parentheses or em dashes) from the rest of the sentence. subject
I, who am your best friend, must know everything.
They soon repaired the car, which had not been badly damaged.
whom [formal]
who [informal]
The driver, who(m) I had never seen before, insisted that he knew me.
The front bumper, which the other car had twisted a little, was soon put straight.
object of preposition
to whom4 [formal]
who ... to [informal]
Sergeant Brown, to whom I showed my licence, was very polite.
Sergeant Brown, who I showed my licence to, was very polite.
to which [formal]
which ... to [very rarely]
Martin's garage, to which the car had been taken, was not far away.
Martin's garage, which the car had been taken to, was not far away.
possessive relative word
The injured pedestrian, whose leg had been broken, was carried away on a stretcher.
of which [formal]
This book, whose author is a woman of eighty, is very amusing.
This book, of which the author is a woman of eighty, is very amusing.
This book, the author of which is a woman of eighty, is very amusing.

0 A word in round brackets can be considered optional. The relative pronoun is usually omitted in short sentences, e.g. On the day you pass over the Jordan (New English Bible).
1 After anybody, anyone, everybody, everyone, someone, no one, etc. who is more often used than that.
2 Only that is used in the following cases:
a. When the antecedent is modified by adjectives in the superlative degree (e.g. fastest, last, best), by ordinal numerals (first), by the pronouns all, any, every, some, no, none, or by the adjectives only, next.
b. When the antecedent is the pronoun all, everything, anything, something, or nothing.
3 In speech and informal writing who tends to predominate over whom and is used in everyday conversation and writing, especially in the popular press and in dramatic dialogue; it is sometimes avoided where more formal language is felt to be appropriate, as in business correspondence, scholarly works, technical reports, documents, etc.
4Whom is almost impossible in clauses that end with a preposition, so some grammarians consider the sentences like I think you should stay faithful to the person whom you're married to to be incorrect. Others give the 'correct' examples found 'in good, careful writers', e.g. He knew whom it was from (L. P. Hartley).
5Not all writers would be happy about using whose when the antecedent is non-personal (R. A. Close).
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